Laws

CYPRUS

The northern part of the island of the Republic of Cyprus is occupied by Turkish forces

Limited information only available for these topics

Access to Children
Adoption of Children
Age of Consent
Anti-Vilification
Artifical Insemination
Assisted Reproduction
Asylum / Refugees
  Civil Unions
Custody of Children
Discrimination
Fostering Children
Harassment
Hate Crimes
HIV/Aids
  Homosexuality
Immigration
Inheritance
In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
Marriage
Military
Parenting
  Partners
Privacy
Property
Sodomy
Superannuation
Transgender, Transsexual
Violence
Wrongful Death

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Age of Consent Legislation/Cases/References
1.

Southern Cyprus

On 11 July 2002, the House approved more than 50 bills, including the controversial law raising the age of consent for heterosexuals to 17, to avoid having to reduce the age for homosexuals to 16 [R1.1].

The Criminal Code, Chapter 154, Article 154 provides that the age of consent for sexual activity is seventeen (17) years of age [R1.2].

Previously:

On 04 July 2002, the House decided to defer discussion of reducing the age of consent from 18 to 16 despite an attempt from House Legal Affairs Committee Chairman Panayiotis Demetriou to convince the plenum to treat the matters as urgent and vote on it immediately [R1.3].

R1.1 Cyprus Mail: Controversial age of consent bill is passed 12 JUL 02
R1.2 Interpol: Sexual Offences Against Children Spring 06 (Accessed 15 AUG 10)
R1.3 Cyprus Mail: Gays Ruling 'Too Little, Too Late' 06 JUL 02
Asylum, Immigration, Refugees Legislation/Cases/References
1.

Southern Cyprus

In November 2008, Interior Minister Bagherian granted resident status to Mehdi Kazemi [R1.1].

In July 2008, the Commissioner of Administration in Cyprus warned that Mehdi Kazemi, 20 a gay Iranian man, faced death in his homeland if he was deported [R1.2].

R1.1 PinkNews.co.uk: Cyprus Grants Resident Status to Gay Iranian Asylum Seeker 26 NOV 08
R1.2 PinkNews.co.uk: Concern for Gay Iranian Refused Asylum in Cyprus 31 JUL 08
Civil Unions, Partners: Domestic, Registered Legislation/Cases/References
See also: [MARRIAGE]
1.

Southern Cyprus

On 11 January 2016, it was reported that the Interior Ministry had called on couples interested in entering a civil union to submit applications for a non-marriage certificate as of January 18. Couples need to establish their place of residence, complete an application form, produce identity documents, provide an affidavit and a certificate of freedom to marry. Certification of civil union costs €90. A civil union can be dissolved either by a written joint-statement, a court decree, a marriage between the couple which automatically makes the civil union certification obsolete, or the death of one of the parties [R1.3].

On 26 November 2015, the House passed the Civil Unions Bill (39 votes in favour, 12 against, and 3 abstentions), extending all the rights of marriage to same-sex couples apart from the right to adopt [R1.2].

On 06 April 2015, the Cabinet reportedly approved a civil partnership bill that would allow gay couples to register their relationships and grant them all marriage rights except joint adoption. The Bill will now be introduced to the Parliament [R1.1].

R1.3 InCyprus: Ministry green lights civil union applications 11 JAN 15
R1.2 in-cyprus: Civil unions become law 26 NOV 15
R1.1 GayStarNews: Cyprus government approves gay civil unions 07 MAY 15
Discrimination Legislation/Cases/References
1.

Northern Cyprus

Discrimination in the work place against openly gay men or women is most likely to be encountered [R1.1].

In the 1990s some tourists suspected of homosexuality or being infected with HIV were been refused entry or quickly deported [R1.2].

2.

Southern Cyprus

See also: [HATE CRIME]

In 2004, discrimination in employment based on sexual orientation was made unlawful [R2.1].

R1.1 Initiative Against Homophobia: www.homofobiyekarsiinisiyatif.org/eng/ 20 JUL 08
R1.2 Answers.com: LGBT rights in Cyprus 20 JUL 08
R2.1 ILGA: State-Sponsored Homophobia PDF 382.87kb, MAY 08

GayLawNet®™ "Exclusive" Sponsorship of this page IS available
Hate Crimes Legislation/Cases/References
1.

Southern Cyprus

On 07 October 2013, the Republic of Cyprus was reported to have amended the Criminal Code making the vilification of people based on their sexual orientation or gender identity unlawful [R1.1]:

'A person who publicly and in a threatening manner intentionally encourages or incites either verbally or with written texts or illustrations or any other way to violence or hatred directed against a person or group defined on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity, is guilty of an offense and in case of conviction is subject to imprisonment not exceeding three years or to a fine not exceeding € 5,000 or to both such a fine and imprisonment'.
R1.1 GayStarNews: Cyprus adds sexual orientation and gender identity to anti vilification code 08 OCT 13
HIV Aids Legislation/Cases/References
See also: [PRIVACY]
1.

Southern Cyprus

On 23 September 2015, a holiday goer injured in Paphos told medical staff at a private clinic that he was HIV positive and a doctor, in breach of medical confidentiality, alledgedly then called the hotel where the injured man was staying, informed them of his condition and advising the hotel to burn the sheets and the bedspread and to disinfect the man's room. The hotel informed other hotels and the man was persistently refused accommodation and even denied treatment at other private clinics [R1.2].

In 1998, Cypriot Greek Orthodox Archbishop Chrysostomos said he will defrock a gay priest who has AIDS [R1.1].

R1.2 GayTimes: Gay man kicked out of Cyprus hotel for being HIV positive 23 SEP 15
R1.1 Capital Q: Priest to be Defrocked 15 MAY 98
Homosexuality, Sodomy Legislation/Cases/References
1.

Southern Cyprus

Consensual sex between same-sex couples was decriminalised in the Greek, southern half of Cyprus 1998 [R1.1] as a consequence of the 1993 judgment in the case of Modinos v. Cyprus [C1.1].

Previously:

In July 2002, the House decided to discuss the issue next week despite an attempt from House Legal Affairs Committee Chairman Panayiotis Demetriou to convince the plenum to treat the matters as urgent and vote on it immediately [R1.1].

In 2000, parliament finally replaced the reference to "unnatural licentiousness" with the phrase "intercourse between men" [R1.2].

In July 1998, amendments to the laws saw a ban on advertising for a gay partner, prohibitions on gay "indecent" proposals and higher penalties to sex offences that are homosexual in nature [R1.3].

In May 1998, the parliament of the Republic of Cyprus voted May 21 to change its law criminalizing consensual homosexual relations between adults, with some repressive elements [R1.4].

In November 1997, the government called for the House Foreign Affairs Committee to vote to legalise gay-male sex [R1.5].

2.

Northern Cyprus

On 07 February 2014, the bill decriminalizing homosexual acts was signed into law, and took effect upon publication in the official gazette [R2.5].

Previously

The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Criminal Code, Chapter 154 provides -

Article 171. Whoever –

(a) has sexual intercourse against the order of nature with any person, or

(b) allows sexual intercourse against the order of nature with a male,

commits a heavy crime and is punished with up to five years imprisonment.

Article 173. Whoever attempts to commit one of the crimes mentioned above in art. 171, commits a heavy crime and is punished with up to three years imprisonment [R2.4].

There are plans to repeal these articles, but such a reform has not occurred as of publication of this report [R2.4].


On 27 January 2014, Turkish Cypriot deputies passed 28-1 (with 21 abstentions) an amendment repealing a colonial-era law that punished homosexual acts with up to five years in prison. The change still has to be endorsed by the breakaway republic's president, Derviş Eroğlu, who is expected to support the reform [R2.4].

On 12 April 2013, it was reported that the Prime Ministry's European Union (EU) Coordination Centre had drawn up an amendment to repeal Articles 171, 172 and 173 of Chapter 154 of the TRNC Penal Code that prohibit male same-sex acts [R2.3].

In December 2011, Turkish Cypriot leaders reportedly had bowed under pressure from MEPs and agreed to decriminalise homosexuality. Derviş Eroğlu, president of the Turkish Cypriot government, said he would sign a repeal of the ban 'without delay' [R2.2].


In October 2006, Turkish controlled Northern Cyprus announced plans to decriminalize homosexuality [R2.1].

2A. Courts & Tribunals

On 01 August 2012, the European Court of Human Rights was reported to have registered the case of H v. Turkey seeking to decriminalise homosexuality in Northern Cyprus [R2A.3].

On 07 February 2012, the Human Dignity Trust filed a case against Turkey in the European Court of Human Rights seeking to decriminalise consensual sex between same-sex couples in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [C2A.2], [R2A.1].

C1.1 European Court of Human Rights: Modinos v. Cyprus (Application no. 15070/89) 22 APR 93
R1.1 Cyprus Mail: Gays Ruling 'Too Little, Too Late' 06 JUL 02
R1.2 Cyprus Mail: Gay Rights Activist Welcomes Amendment to Homosexuality Law 10 JUN 00
R1.3 Capital Q: Anti-Gay Laws Unacceptable 03 JUL 98
R1.4 IGLHRC: Repressive Reform in Cyprus 26 MAY 98
R1.5 Capital Q: Cypriot Plea for Gay Sex 21 NOV 97
R2.5 Wikipedia: LGBT rights in Northern Cyprus (Accessed 10 MAY 14)
R2.4 ILGA: State-Sponsored Homophobia PDF 700.06kb, 13 MAY 09
R2.4 TheGuardian: Northern Cyprus votes to legalise gay sex 28 JAN 14
R2.3 GayStarNews: Northern Cyprus to legalize gay sex 12 APR 13
R2.2 GayStarNews: Northern Cyprus to decriminalise gays 14 DEC 11
R2.1 PinkNews.co.uk: Gays in Northern Cyprus Seek European Support for Law Reform 09 JUL 08
ILGA: State-Sponsored Homophobia PDF 382.87kb, MAY 08
365Gay.com: North Cyprus To Abolish Sodomy Law 20 OCT 06
R2A.3 PinkNews: Bid to decriminalise gay acts in Northern Cyprus at European court 01 AUG 12
C2A.2 Y v. Turkey
R2A.1 Human Dignity Trust: Homosexuality a Criminal Offence in Northern Cyprus ~Legal Challenge Brought Against Turkey~ PDF 49.08kb, 06 FEB 12
Marriage Legislation/Cases/References
1.

Southern Cyprus / Northern Cyprus

Cyprus only recognizes a marriage between a man and a woman. The nation does not recognize same-sex marriages, civil unions or domestic partnerships [R1.1].

R1.1 Answers.com: LGBT rights in Cyprus 20 JUL 08
Military Legislation/Cases/References
1.

Southern Cyprus / Northern Cyprus

The army does not accept people who are openly homosexual. [R1.1].

R1.1 Cyprus Mail: Defence Ministry Told to Pay Damages to Gay Man 04 JUL 99
CONFIDENTIALITY, PERSONAL SAFETY, PRIVACY, SAFETY ONLINE Legislation/Cases/References
1.

Southern Cyprus

On 23 September 2015, a holiday goer injured in Paphos told medical staff at a private clinic that he was HIV positive and a doctor, in breach of medical confidentiality, alledgedly then called the hotel where the injured man was staying, informed them of his condition and advising the hotel to burn the sheets and the bedspread and to disinfect the man's room. The hotel informed other hotels and the man was persistently refused accommodation and even denied treatment at other private clinics [R1.1].

R1.2 GayTimes: Gay man kicked out of Cyprus hotel for being HIV positive 23 SEP 15
Violence: Bullying, Domestic Violence, Harassment, Vilification Legislation/Cases/References
See: [HATE CRIME]
   

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